- germination rate analysis
- seed health analysis
In vivo resistance trials: in growth chambers, with artificially inoculated pathogens, for the selection of resistant genotypes.
- purity: genetic analysis of each seed/plant from the same lot in order to verify the purity of the lot;
- fingerprinting: comparing the genetic profile of a unknown seed/plant/fruit unknown with a reference, to check if it's the same variety or not.
- genetic analysis for traits (MAS, marker-assisted selection): for resistance genes it is possible to compare the MAS results with those from in vivo trials.